The presence of Ox cart and Horse cart were underlined in India in the Vedic era – during 1700 before CEC. According to hand – written documents such as: religious ideology and technical rules: war rules. In India at that time, it was seen there were two kinds of carts: Ox cart for transportation and Horse cart for making war. The two kinds of the above carts were carved on the stone since 125 of CEC. The characteristic of India’s cart is that, even though, its form was changed throughout the age, its two squadrons were still used like previous era. Under the India’s cultural influence, Khmer citizens in Funanese also borrowed the cart from Indian since the early 1th century of CEC until present day. So, the utilization of Ox cart or Buffalo cart was initiated since 1th century of CEC and has been continuing until now.
At Pre – Angkor as well as Angkor era, Khmer ox cart had played important role in Khmer society not only for social affairs but also for religions. Throughout carvings at Angkor Wat in 12th century of CEC, we are able to clearly see that horse cart which Preasbat SORIYAVARAMAN2 sat on is the notions representing the Sun or the Moon which are symbol of his dynasty. On the other hand, in cartoon performance such as The Mahayana Ream Story or in Buddhist style. Ox cart and Horse cart have been popular for Cambodian in the reign of Preasbat CheyvaramanVII if monitored in Classical relics. Our archaeological research identified that in Khmer culture as Hinduism, wheelchair or Kangochak are sacred weapons of Goddess and they are also the signal representing time such as Moon and season in a year. So, Cambodian people realized Ox cart and its symbol clearly since pre – Angkor era, more especially in Funan culture period, such as Wheelchair wastes at Kampuchea Krom and other objects that have been seen as testimonies. Obviously, since early of 1th century until now, Ox carts are still popular in the Kingdom of Cambodia: the presence of Coins which are carved of human riding on at Krong Angkorborey. Otherwise, it was found a piece of wooden ox cart in the Delta region at Kampuchea Krom but what more wonderful than this is that Horse have been utilized since pre Funan era, as in a case of a carvings carved on the wall of Stha ni Preahvihear in Prey Veng Province. One another factor should be continuing researched is differentiation between Khmer ox cart and India ox cart, because of around this issue, we are still fuzzy that we are not able to interpret. Despite, we are still feel that Khmer citizens in Funan period in producing radious of cart and especially Khmer Horse embroidery maybe receive influence from China rather than India.
(Research articles of Professor Dr. MICHELLE TRANCE)