តំបន់ឧទ្យានជាតិក្នុងប្រទេសកម្ពុជា

តំបន់ឧទ្យានជាតិជាតំបន់ទេសភាព និងធម្មជាតិ ដែលមានសារៈសំខាន់សម្រាប់បម្រើឲ្យ ការស្រាវជ្រាវវិទ្យាសាស្រ្ត​ ការអប់រំ និងរមណីដ្ឋាន ។ តំបន់ឧទ្យានជាតិស្ថិតនៅលំដាប់ទី២ នៃ IUCN ។ ហើយម្យ៉ាងទៀត ឧទ្យានជាតិត្រូវបានគ្រប់គ្រងពិសេស សម្រាប់ការពារប្រព័ន្ធអេកូឡូស៊ី និងរមណីដ្ឋាន ។

ប្រទេសកម្ពុជាបានក្លាយជាប្រទេសទី1 នៅក្នុងតំបន់អាស៊ីអាគ្នេយ៍ ដោយបានបង្កើតឧទ្យានជាតិ មុនគេនៅឆ្នាំ ១៩២៥ នៅចន្លោះព្រៃចំនួន ១០.៨០០ ហ.ត ជុំវិញតំបន់អង្គរត្រូវបានប្រកាសជាតំបន់ការពារធម្មជាតិ។ មកដល់ឆ្នាំ ១៩៦៩ កម្ពុជាបានបង្កើតឧទ្យាន និងដែនជម្រកសត្វព្រៃចំនួន ៦ គ្រប់ដណ្ដប់លើផ្ទៃដីចំនួន ២.២ លានហ.ត ដែលស្មើនឹង ១២.១៥ ភាគរយ ផ្ទៃដីសរុបរបស់ប្រទេស។ បច្ចុប្បន្នប្រទេសកម្ពុជាមានឧទ្យានជាតិចំនួន៧ គឺៈ

១.ឧទ្យានជាតិព្រះសុរាម្រិត កុសមៈ គិរីរម្យ

​​​​​មានផ្ទៃដី ៣៥.០០០ហ.ត ស្ថិតនៅខេត្តកំពង់ស្ពឺ និងខេត្តកោះកុង។ ឧទ្យាននេះសម្បូរដោយព្រៃស្រល់ Coniferous forest ខ្ពស់ៗ រួមជាមួយនឹងថនិកសត្វធំៗ រួមមានខ្លាដំបង Tiger ទន្សោង Banteng ខ្ទីង Gaur ។ នៅលើវិសាលភាពផ្ទៃដីទំហំ ៣៥.០០០ហ.ត តាមព្រះរាជក្រឹតគេអាចចែកព្រៃឈើក្នុងឧទ្យានជាតិនេះជាបីប្រភេទៈ ព្រៃស្រល់មានទំហំ ៨.០០០ហ.ត មានដុះតែនៅក្នុងបរិវេណភ្នំគិរីរម្យ ដែលជាទីតាំង ភូមិសាស្រ្ត និងអេកូឡូស៊ីពិសេសសម្រាប់កាលូតលាស់ប្រភេទដើមស្រល់បាន។​ ព្រៃស្រល់ជាព្រៃកម្រដែលពុំមានពីរ នៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជា នៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជា ហើយដុះដំរៀបគ្នាដូចម្រាមដៃ ពេលមានខ្យល់ បក់ប៉ះស្លឹកស្រល់បន្លឺសំលេងតន្រ្តីធម្មជាតិយ៉ាងពីរោះរន្ដំ។ ចំណែកព្រៃឈើចម្រុះមានដុះតាមចង្កេះភ្នំ និងប្រភេទទីបីជាព្រៃរបោះ Deciduous Forest ។

នៅលើកំពូលភ្នំមានអាកាសធាតុត្រជាក់ ហើយប្រែប្រួលយ៉ាងឆាប់រហ័សគឺពេលថ្ងៃសីតុណ្ហភាព២៧អង្សាសេ រីឯពេលយប់ធ្លាក់មកដល់១០អង្សាសេ។ លើសពីនេះទៀតនៅមានប្រព័ន្ធអេកូឡូស៊ីប្រណិតៗ ជាច្រើនដូចជាទឹកជ្រោះ និងបឹងជាដើម។

២. ឧទ្យានជាតិព្រះមុន្នីវង្ស បូកគោ

មានផ្ទៃដី ១៤០.០០០ហ.ត ស្ថិតនៅក្នុងខេត្តកំពត ។ លក្ខណៈពិសេសនៃឧទ្យាននេះគឺស្ថិតនៅលើរយៈកម្ពស់ ១.០៨០ម មានធាតុអាកាសត្រជាក់រហឹមជានិច្ច ហើយនៅរដូវវស្សាភ្ញៀវទេសចរអាចមើលឃើញ រូបភាពពពកពិតដែលហោះហើរអណ្ដែតជុំវិញខ្លួន ។ នៅលើកំពូលភ្នំបើយើងសម្លឹងមើលទៅទិសខាងលិច អាចមើលឃើញទស្សនិកភាពដ៏ស្អាតនៃក្រុងព្រះសីហនុ ហើយបើសម្លឹងមើលខាងកើតវិញយើងយើងអាចមើលឃើញទិដ្ឋភាពទីរួមខេត្តកំពត និងទស្សនីយភាពក្រុងកែប ។ ចំណែកឯនៅភូមិសាស្រ្តពពកវិលមានទឹកធ្លាក់បីដំណាក់ ដែលជាកន្លែងសម្រាកលម្ហែមិនអាចបំភ្លេចបាន។​ សណ្ឋានដីនៅលើភ្នំបូកគោ ជាដីមមោកតំបន់ខ្ពស់ សម្បូរប្រភេទដីស្រល់ ឆមឆា ព្រមទាំងមានថនិកសត្វធំៗរួមមាន ខ្លាដំបង ដំរីខ្លាឃ្មុំ និងខ្លាឃ្មុំខ្មៅនៅអាស៊ី

៣.ឧទ្យានជាតិកែប

មានផ្ទៃដី ៥.០០០០ហ.ត ស្ថិតនៅទីក្រុងកែប ។ ឧទ្យានជាតិក្រុងកែបមានទស្សនីយភាព សមុទ្រដ៏ប្រណិត ជាពិសេសនៅឆ្នេទល់មុខក្រុងកែប ភ្ញៀវទេសចរអាចទទួលយកខ្យល់អាកាសបរិសុទ្ធរួមជាមួយ នឹងពិដោបុប្ផាជាតិដុះតាមជើងភ្នំជាប់នឹងឆ្នេខ្សាច់ ម៉្យាងទៀត គេអាចមើលឃើញទេសភាពសមុទ្រ ភូមិអ្នកនេសាទនៅលើកោះជាច្រើន ជាពិសេស ឧទ្យានជាតិបូកគោ មានអាយុចាស់ជាងគេ ដែលបានសាងសង់ឡើងនៅសម័យអាណានិគមបារាំងសម្រាប់ជាកន្លែងលម្ហែកាយ។ ក្រោមព្រះរាជានុញ្ញាតរបស់ព្រះមហាក្សត្រ ព្រះបាទស៊ីសុវត្ថិ បានផ្ដល់រាជានុសិទ្ធិសាងសង់បូរីបូកគោនៅថ្ងៃទី១៣ ខែមេសា ឆ្នាំ១៩២២។ ព្រះមហាក្សត្រ ព្រះបាទនរោត្ដមស៊ីហនុ បានកសាង បុរីបូកគោនេះឡើងវិញឆ្នាំ១៩៦១ក្នុងពេលនោះ សណ្ឋាគារបូកគោក៏ត្រូវបានធ្វើការកែលំអរឡើងវិញដែរ។ ក្នុងសម័យនោះបុរីគោ បានក្លាយជាកន្លែងសម្រាកលម្ហែពេញនិយមរបស់អ្នកទេសចរជាតិ និងអន្តរជាតិ។

កោះទន្សាយចំណែកនៅតំបន់ទំនាបជុំវិញភ្នំនៃក្រុងកែបសម្បូរព្រៃស្រាង Evergreen Forest ផ្ដល់បរិស្ថានល្អ ។

៤.ឧទ្យានជាតិព្រះសីហនុ រាម

មានផ្ទៃដី ២១.០០០ហ.ត ស្ថិតនៅក្នុងក្រុងព្រះសីហនុ ។ លក្ខណៈពិសេសនៃឧទ្យាននេះ សម្បូរព្រៃស្រាងដុះឡើងវិញនៅដីទំនាប ព្រមទាំងព្រៃកោងកាង Mangrove Forest ដុះតាមព្រែកទឹកសាប និងតាមតំបន់ឆ្នេសមុទ្រ។ ភ្ញៀវទេសចរអាចធ្វើដំណើរកំសាន្ត ឬទៅស្រាវជ្រាវតាមមធ្យោបាយពីរយ៉ាងគឺ អាចតាមផ្លូវគោកដោយប្រើរថយន្តគ្រប់ប្រភេទ ជិះមើលទេសភាពឆ្នេសមុទ្រមើលទេសភាពចម្ការដូង និងអាចឆ្លងទៅលេងកោះតាកៀវតាមអូប័រ។ ចំណែកឯការធ្វើដំណើរតាមផ្លូវទឹកវិញ គឺចាប់ផ្ដើមចេញដំណើរតាមព្រែកទឹកសាបដោយទូក ឬកាណូតរបស់ឧទ្យាននុរក្ស មើលទេសចរភាពព្រៃកោងកាង និងឆ្នេខ្សាច់ដ៏ស្អាតគ្មានពីរនៃកោះសំប៉ូច ។

៥.ឧទ្យានជាតិបូទុមសាគរ

មានផ្ទៃដី ១៧១.២៥០ហ.ត ស្ថិតនៅក្នុងខេត្តកោះកុង។ លក្ខណៈពិសេសនៃឧទ្យាននេះ គឺសម្បូរព្រៃស្រាងទំនាបធំៗ ស្ថិតនៅសភាពល្អនៅឡើយ ព្រៃកោងកាង និង Dacrydium Podcarpus ព្រៃនៅវាលភក់តំបន់ឆ្នេកម្ពុជា ។

៦.ឧទ្យានជាតិភ្នំគូលេន

មានផ្ទៃដី ៣៧.៥០០ហ.ត ស្ថិតនៅខេត្តសៀមរាប។ លក្ខណៈពិសេស តំបន់ឧទ្យានជាតិនេះ គឺជាតំបន់ស្ថិតនៅអាងរងទឹកភ្លៀងរបស់ស្ទឹងសៀមរាប។ ឧទ្យានជាតិនេះ បម្រើឳ្យវិស័យទេសចរណ៍ធម្មជាតិ និង ទេសចរណ៍វប្បធម៍ផង។ ព្រោះនៅតំបន់នេះ អតីតជាទីក្រុងរបស់ព្រះមហាក្សត្រជ័យវរ័ន្មទី២ ដែលបានបន្សល់ទុកនៅមរតកបុរាណវត្ថុជាច្រើន។

៧.ឧទ្យានជាតិវីរៈជ័យ

មានផ្ទៃដី ៣៣២.៥០០ហ.ត ស្ថិតនៅក្នុងខេត្តស្ទឹងត្រែង និងរតនគិរី មានទំហំធំជាងគេ បើប្រៀបធៀបនិងឧទ្យានជាតិដ៏ទៃទៀត។ ឧទ្យានជាតិនេះ ស្ថិតនៅផ្នែកឦសាន្តនៃប្រទេសកម្ពុជា បានផ្ដល់ឱកាសសម្រាប់បង្កើតព្រំប្រទល់បម្រុង ដែលសត្វអាចឆ្លងកាត់បានជាមួយឧទ្យានជាតិដុងអំផាត់ នៅប្រទេសឡាវ និង ឧទ្យានជាតិមុំរ៉ៃ នៅប្រទេសវៀតណាម  ។ លក្ខណៈពិសេសឧទ្យានជាតិវីរៈជ័យ គឺមានព្រៃដែលមានរយៈកម្ពស់ខ្ពស់ស្ថិតនៃភូមិភាគឦសាន្តប្រទេសកម្ពុជា។ ទីនេះមានឥទ្ធិពលជីវៈភូមិសាស្រ្តខុសពីតំបន់និរតី។ តំបន់នេះជាជម្រកមួយយ៉ាងសំខាន់ សម្រាប់ប្រភេទដែលកំពុងរងនូវការគម្រាមកំហែង ដូចជា ខ្លាដំបង ដំរី។

557 thoughts on “តំបន់ឧទ្យានជាតិក្នុងប្រទេសកម្ពុជា

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