The Collapse of Democratic Kampuchea
Three Rationales of the Collapse of Democratic Kampuchea
1. Degradation of the people: The Democratic Kampuchea’s four years plan identified Cambodia would produce three tons of rice in a hectare every year. This figure was numerous beyond yields before revolutionary era. When rice yields were not enough to setting plan, cadres nationwide made false reports. After those cadres would have to send numerous rice, as scheduled plan by leaving the people suffered starvation. Thanks to nationally operations were done in secret made plan in collecting three tons of rice yields in a hectare was not carried out. All areas nationwide were not allowed to share information to each other, or not permitted to view whether there were matters were occurring. Central party rarely went to inspect the people’s condition, or rarely prepared plans for lower cadres to implement. The top leaders seemed absolutely believe on what the lower reported to, while the lower dared not report not good information to the tops. The senior officials of Democratic Kampuchea trusted that the party had never committed any wrongdoing, and had never made wrong decision. All issues happened had been put the blame on foreigner, or on tailor. Owing to deteriorated situation of people, thousands of people had died consequently of overwork and starvation.
2. Purification: In the middle of 1976, the Cambodian Communist Party’s the number of main members had been purified. Since then, Pol Pot and his colleagues believed that rebellion against with party leaders were getting more and more. Those leaders trusted that their enemies were everywhere. Many village committees, regional councils, and commanders had been arrested and killed. The situation got worse and worse in 1977, when Pol Pot ordered to kill the east zone cadres, and made purification almost all on the people living in this area. When Vietnam entered into this area in late of 1977, the remaining people had been accused of surrounding to Vietnam, and had been considered as people with Vietnam head and Khmer body by Central Party. So, central party dispatched many troops to attack the east zone, and killed thousands of people. Thousands of people flied to Vietnam, where the Government of Vietnam assisted in establishing a military base.
3. The conflict with Vietnam: This is a main cause of the collapse of Democratic Kampuchea. In 1975, Democratic Kampuchea started causing problems at along the border with Vietnam. A strong fighting had erupted in the middle of 1977 was the time Khmer rouges fired at Chau Doc town, Ha Tieng district and other provinces of Vietnam in resulted civil people got injured and many not alert Vietnam troops got wounded. Thousands of Vietnamese people fled into the country. Within only two to three days of the attack, about 1000 Vietnamese people got injured and died. In December 1977, Vietnam used jets, artilleries to large – scale open fire on Democratic Kampuchea by seizing control over Cham Pose Tea and Cham Pose Sek areas in Svay Rieng province. Vietnam troops encroached over 20km in the territory of Democratic Kampuchea, and took control on the provincial town of Svay Rieng. In response, Democratic Kampuchea cut diplomatic tie with Vietnam, and ordered all Vietnam ambassadors in Phnom Penh to leave from Cambodia. The Khmer rouges agreed to negotiate in the case all Vietnam troops had been withdrawn from the territory of Democratic Kampuchea in advance. Short time later, Vietnam had withdrawn troops from Cambodia by bringing with thousands of prisoners and people. No any negotiation had been made.
Vietnam accused Khmer rouges of attacking on its five provinces situated along border with Cambodia. Vietnam had urged to get a force of communist party established to fight against with Khmer rouges. Vietnam also started training Cambodian people living in Vietnam to serve in military operation, and created a core force for new regime. The two nations fought each other for while in 1978. On April 03, 1978, a radio in Hanoi aired in Khmer calling all Cambodian people to stand out in protest to Democratic Kampuchea. Vietnam selected Cambodian people who fled to Vietnam to serve in soldier line led by Vietnamese troops. Mostly of those Cambodian people were cadres, troops, and east zone people. At that time, a part of east zone was controlled by Vietnam and another one was under control of insurgency groups against with Khmer rouges. On December 03, 1978, a radio in Hanoi aired about the establishment of Cambodian National Salvation Front. This front was led by comrade Heng Samrin who fled to Vietnam in the late of 1978. A commander of Vietnam troops, Van Tien Dung, led to fight strongly on Democratic Kampuchea on 25 December 1978. The troops of Van Tien Dung took control over Kratie province within 7 days, and Kampong Cham within a week. After on 07 January 1979, Vietnam troops and troops of Cambodian National Salvation Front had seized the capital of Phnom Penh, and seized almost the entire nation consequently. The two troops organized a general assembly in order to form the People’s Revolutionary Council of Kampuchea to be as a temporarily government under leadership of comrade Heng Samrin